The causes of dark or brown urine are many, ranging from benign to possibly fatal.
Benign causes of dark or brown urine:
Have you eaten recently any of the following? Fava beans, rhubarb pie, black licorice, blackberries or dyed foods?
These foods can darken urine. The darkness in your urine, if caused by these foods, will take a few days to return to normal once you cease eating these items.
“Depending on the circumstances, dark urine is most commonly due to dehydration,” says Carolyn Dean, MD, ND – Medical Advisory Board Member, Nutritional Magnesium Association at www.nutritionalmagnesium.org.
“But it may also indicate that an excess of potentially dangerous waste products are circulating in the body. For example, dark brown urine may indicate liver disease due to the presence of bile in the urine.”
Laxatives that contain cascara or senna
-Bleeding in the kidney, ureter or bladder
-Melanoma (urine color can be dark brown or even blackish)
-Acute glomerulonephritis, a kidney ailment that impedes a kidney’s ability to remove excess waste and fluids
-Liver disease, particularly cirrhosis and hepatitis
-Hemolytic anemia (abnormal breakdown of red blood cells)
-Tyrosinemia, a rare genetic disorder: elevated blood levels of tyrosine, which is an amino acid
-Rhabdomyolysis, a side effect from statin medications that causes muscle pain. Urine may be reddish brown or golden brown, a hallmark sign of “rhabdo.”
“Intense or excessive exercise can also create dark urine,” says Dr. Dean. “Intense exercise can cause muscle injury that causes your body to release waste products in excess.”
Dr. Dean says the following also can lead to brownish urine: “Biliary obstruction, gallstones, bladder stones, bladder cancer, jaundice, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, malaria or even the side effect of blood-thinning medications.”
When blood gets old, it turns brown, which is why the urine becomes this color when there’s old blood in it.
Another cause of darkened urine is urologic surgery or a urinary tract infection.
Make sure that you have adequate light when inspecting your urine. Watch it as you void, and view the color in the toilet water. The toilet bowl should be clean, and the water clear; not dyed from cleansers.
If you can’t connect your dark or brown urine to any of the above items that are not illnesses, then seek a consultation with a urologist.